Eiffel Tower – Symbol of France

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1. History of construction of the Eiffel Tower

In 1884, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the French bourgeois revolution, the French government decided to organize an international exhibition and build a commemorative tower. The Eiffel Tower  was constructed within 26.5 months , ending in 1889 with the expectation of becoming “the pinnacle of the World Exhibition” in 1889 in Paris. Through this architecture, France wants to assert itself as an industrial power, and at the same time demonstrate the boldness of the French in daring to start a new revolution in the history of architecture with the use of construction materials. iron, steel, cast iron…

With a cost of over 800 thousand francs, the Eiffel Tower is considered to have an extremely precise, strict, and meticulous design. During the construction of the project for more than two years, there were no casualties  . The adjustment combination of details and drill holes all match very well. This is considered a great feat in  architectural history .

You may not know that the Eiffel Tower is not the work of Gustave Eiffeil, but of two senior engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier. After Chief Architect Stephen Sauvestre corrected many points in the drawing, Gustave Eiffel was satisfied. The right to build the tower is registered in the names Eiffel with Koechlin and Nouguier. Very soon, Gustave Eiffel bought the rights of these two engineers to hold exclusive rights to the future tower.

2. Eiffel Tower structure

The Eiffel Tower has an original height of 300m. With the antenna mast on top, the tower reaches a height of 325m, equivalent to a 100-storey building. The tower body is  completely made of iron and steel, weighing up to 9,000 tons, welded from 12 thousand metal parts. For this reason, the height of the tower is affected when the temperature changes due to the thermal expansion effect. In summer, the Eiffel Tower is about 17cm taller. In winter, the height of the tower decreases from 10 to 20 cm.

On the tower there are 3 observation decks, top, middle, and bottom, which can accommodate 10,000 people at the same time. From the ground to the top of the tower there is an elevator, people can also follow the 1,710 stairs to climb to the  top of the tower . The highest floor observatory is 276 meters above the ground, with an area of ​​350 square meters; The middle floor is 115 meters above the ground. Observing from  the tower , the whole of Paris is within sight.

First floor

The four legs of the Eiffel Tower form a large square with a side of 125 meters, in accordance with the registration at the 1886 competition. 325 meters high with 116 antennas, the Eiffel Tower base is located 33.5 meters above sea level. seawater.

Today, the ticket counters to the Eiffel Tower are located at the foot of the North and West towers, consuming 2 tons of ticket paper each year. The elevators are located at the East and West legs, about every eight minutes. There is also a staircase located at the foot of the East tower, including 1,665 steps to the top but only open to the public up to the third floor. At the foot of the south tower there is also an elevator reserved for employees and guests of Le Jules-Verne restaurant on the second floor.

Second floor

At a height of 57 meters above the ground, the second floor of the Eiffel Tower has an area of ​​4,200 m², has a relatively dark square shape and can accommodate about 3,000 people.

A corridor runs around the second floor, allowing visitors to enjoy 360-degree panoramic views of Paris. The hallway is equipped with telescopes and instructions to help visitors observe the city’s works. The outside has the names of 72 world scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The second floor also has Altitude 95 restaurant . From here, diners can look out at the city, while on the other side are tables looking at the inside of the tower. The restaurant’s name means: height 95 meters, which is the height of the second floor of the tower above sea level.

On this floor you can also see many traces of the tower’s history. Like the spiral staircases, which are original to the building, leading up to the top. This staircase was removed in 1986 when significant renovation works were carried out. Cut into 22 sections, 21 sections of the staircase were auctioned and the majority of buyers were American collectors.

Observatory

Finally, an observatory at the top allows recording oscillations and changes of the tower under the influence of wind and thermal expansion. Gustave Eiffel designed the tower to withstand an amplitude of 70 cm, but in reality it never happened to that extent. During the 1976 heat wave, the expansion amplitude reached 18 cm and during the December 1999 storm, with winds of 240 km/h, the expansion amplitude was only 13 cm. Pierre Affaticati and Simon Pierra also overcame this scaling problem in 1982 by reinforcing the tower frame with different metals.

Third floor

At a height of 115 meters above the ground, the third floor of the Eiffel Tower has an area of ​​1,650 square meters, is relatively square in shape and can accommodate about 1,600 people. Below the floor, glass panels allow visitors to look down at the ground. Iron nets are installed around to ensure the safety of visitors.

The third floor is considered the most ideal floor to see Paris. The height of the floor is optimal compared to surrounding buildings. On the fourth floor, these structures will become difficult to see because the distance is too far. In clear weather, visibility on the third floor is estimated to be 55 km south, 60 km north, 65 km east and 70 km west.

Restaurant

On the third floor of the Eiffel Tower, visitors can find Le Jules-Verne culinary restaurant with 95 tables, Michelin rated 1 star and Gault-Millau rated 16/20. All of the restaurant’s decorations remain the same, with dark and discreet colors, with metal sculptures dating back to 1983. Through the restaurant’s glass windows, diners can see the city view. Paris street.

Located at an altitude of 123 meters, the restaurant has an area of ​​​​about 500 m² and uses a separate staircase located at the foot of the south tower shared with maintenance staff. Many of Le Jules-Verne’s customers are tourists and tables here must be booked a long time in advance: about a month for lunch and three months for dinner.

3. Eiffel Tower – Symbol of France 

Surely the first impression of the hexagonal country is the Eiffel Tower. Since its inauguration until now, the Eiffel Tower has welcomed about 250 million visitors. In recent years, each year the tower welcomes about 7 million visitors, making it one of the most attractive toll structures in the world. With such a huge number of visitors, the Eiffel Tower needs about 500 employees.

The entire floor of the Eiffel Tower has many different services. In addition to the two restaurants Altitude 95 and Le Jules-Verne located on the second and third floors, the tower also has fast food restaurants, galleries, souvenir shops, Internet access points, and shops selling French commemorative stamps. …

Function

From the beginning, besides its tourism function, the Eiffel Tower was also used for scientific purposes. A meteorological and aeronautical laboratory occupied the top floor of the tower. Today, the tower continues to be a radio and television broadcasting station for the entire Paris region. For more than a hundred years, France and the capital Paris have been associated with the image of the Eiffel Tower. It’s hard to imagine if Paris didn’t have the Eiffel Tower. Yet there was a time when the birth of the Eiffel Tower was strongly opposed by many people.

From controversial works

The Eiffel Tower is the structure that has caused the most controversy in Paris. No person in the French capital living in the late 19th century could be indifferent to the appearance of the Eiffel Tower. While under construction, the tower received many detractors. Many artists believe that this massive iron and steel structure is ugly and strange, and will be a black mark on the Paris sky. A group of architects and scholars even signed a document opposing the construction of the tower.

Go to a world-famous cultural icon

However, in the end, the Eiffel Tower was still completed and succeeded quickly, becoming one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the world. The Eiffel Tower became a source of inspiration for many authors and artists. This tower appears in many works of painting, photography, literature, cinema, television…

The Eiffel Tower’s height and popularity make it a target for many sports performers as well as those who dare to commit daring acts. Starting from the last decades of the 20th century, Champ-de-Mars, along with the Eiffel Tower, was the venue for the city’s festivals and concerts.

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